Flavor characterization of animal hydrolysates and potential of glucosamine in flavor modulation

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Bovine (meat and heart) and porcine (hemoglobin and plasma) raw materials were hydrolyzed by Protease A (both endo-and exopeptidase activity), with or without glucosamine added during the enzyme inactivation step. Hydrolysates were characterized via peptide analysis (yield, UVand fluorescence scanning spectroscopy, and peptide size distribution via size exclusion chromatography), sensory evaluation, and volatile compound analysis via gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine if glucosamine-induced Maillard reaction improved taste and flavor. Porcine hemoglobin produced the most flavor-neutral hydrolysate, and could expectedly have the broadest application in food products. Both bovine meat and-heart hydrolysates were high in umami, and thereby good candidates for savory applications. Porcine plasma hydrolysate was high in liver flavor and would be suitable for addition to certain meat products where liver flavor is desirable. All hydrolysates had low perceived bitterness. Glucosamine-induced Maillard reaction had just a minor influence on the sensory profile via an increased perception of sweet taste (p = 0.038), umami taste (p = 0.042), and yolk flavor (p = 0.038) in the hydrolysates, irrespective of raw material. Glucosamine addition had a statistically significant effect on 13 of 69 volatiles detected in the hydrolysates, but the effect was minor and raw material-specific.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3008
JournalFoods
Volume10
Issue number12
Number of pages12
ISSN2304-8158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Norma and Frode S. Jacobsen’s Foundation project number 274 and by the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries under GUDP grant No. 34009-16-1085. The authors further acknowledge the support from the Science and Technology Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission grant No. KJQN202100225. The APC was funded by the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna.

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Norma and Frode S. Jacobsen?s Foundation project number 274 and by the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries under GUDP grant No. 34009-16-1085. The authors further acknowledge the support from the Science and Technology Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission grant No. KJQN202100225. The APC was funded by the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Research areas

  • GC-MS, Glucosamine, Hydrolysates, Maillard reaction, Sensory, Volatile compounds

ID: 288271158