Ancient Danish Apple Cultivars—A Comprehensive Metabolite and Sensory Profiling of Apple Juices

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Nunzia Iaccarino, Camilla Varming, Mikael Agerlin Petersen, Nanna Viereck, Birk Schütz, Torben Bo Toldam-Andersen, Antonio Randazzo, Søren Balling Engelsen

In recent decades, intensive selective breeding programs have allowed the development of disease-resistant and flavorsome apple cultivars while leading to a gradual decline of a large number of ancient varieties in many countries. However, the re-evaluation of such cultivars could lead to the production new apple-based products with health beneficial properties and/or unique flavor qualities. Herein, we report the comprehensive characterization of juices obtained from 86 old, mostly Danish, apple cultivars, by employing traditional analysis (ion chromatography,Brix, headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and panel test evaluation) as well as an innovative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based screening method developed by Bruker for fruit juices, known as Spin Generated Fingerprint (SGF) Profiling™. Principal component analysis showed large differences in aroma components and sensory characteristics, including odd peculiar odors and flavors such as apricot and peach, and very different levels of phenolic compounds, acids and sugars among the analyzed juices. Moreover, we observed a tendency for late-season juices to be characterized by higherBrix values, sugar content and they were perceived to be sweeter and more flavor intense than early-season juices. Our findings are useful for the production of specialty vintage-cultivar apple juices or mixed juices to obtain final products that are characterized both by healthy properties and peculiar sensory attributes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number139
JournalMetabolites
Volume9
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1-17
ISSN2218-1989
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

    Research areas

  • Ancient apple cultivars, Apple juice, Bruker-SGF Fruit Juice Screener, HS-GC/MS, NMR, Sensory analysis

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