Inhibition of Maillard Reactions by Replacing Galactose with Galacto-Oligosaccharides in Casein Model Systems

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Wei Zhang, Colin Ray, Mahesha M. Poojary, Therese Jansson, Karsten Olsen, Marianne N. Lund

Lactose reduced dairy products are more prone to Maillard reactions due to the presence of reactive monosaccharides. Conventional β-galactosidases, which are used for lactose hydrolysis in lactose-reduced dairy products, will lead to conversion of lactose into glucose and galactose, where especially galactose is very reactive during Maillard reactions. Some β-galactosidases have transgalactosylating activity and will thus convert lactose into galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and hereby limit the release of galactose. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of participation of GOS in Maillard reactions in comparison to lactose, a 50:50 mixture of glucose and galactose, and galactose exclusively in sodium caseinate-based milk-like model systems heated at 130 and 75 °C at pH 6.8. The GOS system exhibited reduced loss of free amino groups; accumulated less furosine and less of the following advanced glycation end products (AGEs): Nϵ-carboxyethyl lysine, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone isomers, glyoxal-derived lysine dimer, and methylglyoxal-derived lysine dimer; and also developed less browning compared to monosaccharide models. However, the GOS-caseinate system accumulated more 3-deoxyglucosone and 3-deoxygalactosone, which resulted in higher concentrations of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and pyrraline. The results indicated that GOS overall participate less readily in Maillard reactions than the monosaccharides investigated but were more prone to degradation to C6 α-dicarbonyls species. Finally, relationship analysis indicated that C6 α-dicarbonyls seemed to primarily increase concentrations of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural instead of AGEs. Our results suggest that conversion of lactose into GOS instead of monosaccharides in milk by transgalactosylating β-galactosidases could be a useful strategy for production of lactose-free milk for people with lactose intolerance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)875-886
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Research areas

  • 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, advanced glycation end products, furosine, galacto-oligosaccharide, lactose-free dairy products, Maillard reaction, nonenzymatic browning, α-dicarbonyls

ID: 212907419